Get Adobe Flash player

Main Menu

(9) Drugs & Child’s

Child Drug Addicts Living Underground Ukraine Odessa

DC9

Are the reasons for starting to use drugs the same as those that one has for continuing drug use?

No. A number of reasons identified by kids to begin using drugs include curiosity, as a means to kill time or relax, or being pressured by friends, saying “My friends try it, so why shouldn’t I?” or “It’s cool with my friends.” Some kids deny the seriousness of trying drugs, saying, “It’s not a drug” or “I won’t get addicted to it.” This might progress to repeated use because of the drugs’ positive reinforcing effects (feeling good when high). A number of adolescents talk about the sense of belongingness that comes about when using drugs with friends and that this boosts their self esteem and morale. Continued use is again tied up with diminished perception of risk or harm and the fact that serious aftermath is not experienced until later on (adverse consequences are delayed). In cases of opioids (morphine or pains medications like Percocet [acetaminophen with oxycodone], codeine, or Tylenol 3 [acetaminophen and codeine]), one important reason for continuing to use drugs is to avoid uncomfortable withdrawal effects upon discontinuation of the drug.

Terms:

Withdrawal - Uncomfortable or even painful bodily complaints and signs that exist after drug use is stopped. Occurs with dependence.

High - Street term for being under the influence of drugs.

I often hear about adolescents who get alcohol poisoning because they drink too much at once. Is this a common occurrence?

I have encountered a number of adolescents (females outnumbering males) who are referred through the emergency rooms for alcohol poisoning. This results from significant amounts of alcohol ingested in a short period of time by individuals who have not been regular drinkers. The adolescents that I have worked with reported using hard liquors like Hennesey, Bacardi, E and J, and Smirnoff. Compared to beer volume by volume, hard liquors require smaller amounts to achieve similar alcohol levels and therefore take less time to achieve toxic levels. Kids are also unable to pace their consumption. There are very few published studies, and even fewer involving Americans, that establish how common alcohol poisoning is. A European study (Kuzelova et al., 2009) looked at alcohol intoxication that required hospital admissions in children and adolescents. Covering a nine-year period, this study found that the average age of presentation is 15, and the number of children requiring admissions increased every year. The average alcohol concentration was 1.98 ±0.57 g/L, and this level increased in the last four years compared to the previous four years.. The severity of poisoning also increased in relation to blood alcohol levels.

Alcohol levels go beyond the legal limit of intoxication, which, depending on the state, ranges from 0.1 to 0.15 mg/dL. They had no recollection of events and had blacked out. A number of them had to be treated in intensive care units. A few of them also ingested otherpsychoactive agents like marijuana, which can be laced with cocaine, PCP, or embalming fluids. A few have disclosed using downers (benzodiazepines like diazepam,

Xanax [alprazolam], or Ativan [lorazepam]), which can significantly increase depressant effects when used with alcohol. Some of these individuals ended up losing their lives from significant respiratory depression or infection of the lungs due to aspiration related to decreased responsiveness.

 What is the alcohol equivalent to one drink?

One drink is equal to 12 g of ethanol, which is equal to 1.5 oz. of 80-proof liquor (40% ethanol) such as whiskey or gin, 12 oz. of regular beer (7.2 proof, 3.6% ethanol in the United States). Just one drink increases blood alcohol level of a 150-pound individual by 15–20 mg/dL. The body clears one drink in an hour at 20 mg/dL. Most (90%) of the alcohol is excreted through the liver by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase to acetaldehyde. This is then broken down to acetic acid and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase.

 What is an acceptable pattern of drinking?

There is no acceptable pattern for adolescents. Moderate drinking by adults is acceptable. In adults, population studies point to the following as moderate drinking: up to two drinks in a day for males and up to one drink a day for females, and not as an average over several days. Every now and then, I encounter adolescents who report early drinking, as introduced by family membersduring dinners or by alcohol-using relatives. It may also be cultural. In a study by Mayzer and Zucker, early first drinking (EFD), defined as the first drink by 12 to 14 years of age, was associated with more delinquent behaviors than aggression. EFD was also disproportionately likely at both 3–5 and 12–14 years of age in children with high delinquent behaviors and was uncommon in those with low levels of delinquency. Alcohol consumption among young adults will continue to be an issue.

In the United States, a minimum of 21 years old is the legal requirement in all states for alcohol consumption. There are about 10.8 million underage drinkers in the United States.

Term:

Early first drinking (EFD) - EFD occurs when a person consumes his or her first drink between the ages of 12 and 14 years old.

 What is binge drinking?

Binge drinking is defined as the consumption of five or more drinks in a row for boys and four or more in a row for girls. Males are twice as likely to binge as females. Most people who binge drink are not alcohol dependent. Even for adults, approximately 92% of those who drink excessively report binge drinking in the month prior. Most (75%) binge drinking episodes involve adults over age 25 years. Binge drinkers are 14 times more likely to report alcohol-impaired driving than nonbinge drinkers. About 90% of the alcohol consumed by youth under the age of 21 years in the United States is in the form of binge drinking. The proportion of current drinkers who binge is highest in the 18-20-year-old group. Binge drinking begins around age 13, tends to increase during adolescence, and peaks in young adulthood (ages 18-22). Binge drinking during the past 30 days was reported by 8% of youth aged 12-17 and 30% of those aged 18-20.

Term:

Binge drinking - For adult males, it is the consumption of five or more drinks in 2 hours and for adult females, four or more drinks in 2 hours. For adolescents, equivalent amounts of alcohol consumed mean more toxic effects.

Share

Google+

googleplus sm

Translate

ar bg ca zh-chs zh-cht cs da nl en et fi fr de el ht he hi hu id it ja ko lv lt no pl pt ro ru sk sl es sv th tr uk

Verse of the Day

Global Map