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(15) Drugs & Child’s

Inside LSD - Trip Into Hell? (Drugs Documentary)

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What are LSD and PCP?

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and phencyclidine (PCP) are hallucinogens. Persons under the influence of hallucinogenic drugs often report seeing images, hearing sounds, and feeling sensations that seem real, but are not. Most of these substances are synthetically made to provide more potent effects. LSD is found in ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains. PCP was initially used as an anesthetic but was discontinued because it caused agitation and delusions (false beliefs and paranoia) in patients. It can be snorted, smoked, or ingested. For smoking, PCP is often applied to a leafy material such as marijuana. Other drugs in the hallucinogens class include psilocybin, mescaline, and foxy. Psilocybin is obtained from certain mushrooms found in South America, Mexico, and the United States. Once ingested, psilocybin is broken down to another hallucinogen, psilocin. Mescaline is the active hallucinogenic ingredient in peyote, a small, spineless cactus, which has been used for religious reasons by Mexican natives to induce mystical and spiritual experiences.

Foxy, also known as foxy methoxy, is available in powder, capsule, and tablet form and is usually ingested orally.

 The term crack refers to the crackling sound produced by the rock as it is heated.

 Term:

 Hallucinogen - Drugs causing perceptual experiences that do not exist in actuality, including visual (seeing things) and auditory (hearing things) Perceptions

 How is drug use related to other high-risk behaviors, like promiscuous sex?

Sexual development is an integral phase of adolescence that adolescents are expected to respond to in a healthy and responsible way. Drugs and sexual behavior can become intertwined. Drugs cause disinhibition that increases exposure to unsafe and nonconsensual sexual intercourse, leading to contraction of sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, hepatitis, and AIDS. It is also not unlikely that sexual intercourse can be a means for drug solicitation.

Among men, drug use is associated with earlier onset of sexual activity and increased lifetime sexual partners. A history of illicit drug use is related to decreased condom use (Galvez-Buccollini 2009), increasing the risk for sexually transmitted diseases.

How is drug abuse diagnosed?

Substance use and abuse falls on a continuum and the diagnosis of dependence and abuse can become arbitrary, especially in adolescents. In cases where symptoms do not meet the full criteria for the disorder, there is a risk to misinterpret those cases as less severe and thereby lose the opportunity for prevention efforts. This is more relevant in cases where risk factors are identified. The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) IV-TR criteria are used to diagnose abuse and dependence among adolescents. Once dependence diagnosis is fulfilled for a specific drug, abuse diagnosis cannot be made, too.

Abuse, as defined by DSM-IV (APA, 1997) is a repetitive pattern of substance use resulting in significant impairment or distress to the individual, characterized by one (or more) of the following: failure to fulfill responsibilities at work, home, or school; usage of drug even when it is dangerous, such as before driving; continued drug use despite drug-related legal problems; and continued drug use despite negative consequences.

Substance dependence is characterized by a repetitive pattern of substance use resulting in significant impairment or distress to the individual. It has to fulfill at least three of the following criteria: tolerance (a reduced effect of the drug when used at the same amount or need for increased amounts of use to achieve the same high as a result of continued use); withdrawal (characteristic signs and symptoms manifest with cessation of drug use, or the same or similar drug is used to avoid or minimize withdrawal symptoms that occur as a result of repeated use); the use of more of the drug than that which is intended; the inability to control use of the drug; an increase in the amount of time spent obtaining the  drugs or recovering from the effects of the drugs; the replacement of other activities with drug seeking behaviors; and continued use of the drug despite adverse consequences.

The presence of these criteria is necessary for at least one year for a diagnosis of substance abuse or dependence. If the criteria are met for less than a year, only a provisional diagnosis can be made. Criteria for substance dependence include several specifiers, one of which outlines whether substance dependence is with physiologic dependence (evidence of tolerance or withdrawal) or without physiologic dependence (no evidence of tolerance or withdrawal). In addition, remission categories are classified into four subtypes:

(1) Full, (2) Early partial, (3) Sustained, and (4) Sustained partial, on the basis of whether any of the criteria for abuse or dependence has been met over a set time frame. The remission category also can be used for individuals receiving agonist therapy (such as methadone maintenance or suboxone) or for those living in a controlled, drug-free environment, including hospitals, inpatient drug rehabilitation programs, or therapeutic communities.

 

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