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(1) Miscellaneous

O SEGREDO DO SUCESSO (Completo Legendado) - Jack Canfield

O Segredo dos Gênios: Como Expandir a Potência de Sua Memória

Palestra Dr. Lair Ribeiro - Mude sua alimentação, mude sua vida!

A Resposta Para Absolutamente Tudo

Viagem aos Limites do Universo

Dr. Lair Ribeiro - O Sucesso Não Ocorre Por Acaso

Discovery Channel - O Clima no Espaço

O Universo - Os Planetas Exteriores

O Universo - A Lua Satelite da Terra

Alquimia, magia o ciencia - Documental Completo en español

Documental Conspiración Antártida

El Libro Egipcio de los Muertos

El Universo El Futuro Oscuro del Sol Documental

EL UNIVERSO OTRA TIERRA

Rick Warren - Una Vida Con Proposito

Día 1 - Todo comienza con Dios - Una vida con Proposito Rick Warren

Día 2 - No eres un accidente Una vida con Proposito Rick Warren

Día 3 - Qué guía tu vida Una vida con Proposito Rick Warren

Día 4 - Creados para vivir por siempre Una vida con Proposito Rick Warren

Día 5 - La vida desde la perspectiva de Dios Una vida con Proposito Rick Warren

 

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(1) Languages of Love

Akon - Lonely

LL1 

Love begins, or should begin, at home.

What happens to love after the wedding? Is my experience common? Is that why we have so many divorces? I can’t believe that it happened to me. And those who don’t divorce, do they learn to live with the emptiness, or does love really stay alive in some marriages? If so, how?” These are the questions that thousands of married and divorced persons are asking today. Some are asking friends, some are asking counselors and clergy, and some are asking themselves. Sometimes the answers are couched in psychological research jargon that is almost incomprehensible. Sometimes they are couched in humor and folklore. Most of the jokes and pithy sayings contain some truth, but they are like offering an aspirin to a person with cancer.

The desire for romantic love in marriage is deeply rooted in our psychological makeup. Almost every popular magazine has at least one article each issue on keeping love alive in a marriage. Books abound on the subject. Television and radio talk shows deal with it. Keeping love alive in our marriages is serious business. With all the books, magazines, and practical help available, why is it that so few couples seem to have found the secret to keeping love alive after the wedding? Why is it that a couple can attend a communication workshop, hear wonderful ideas on how to enhance communication, return home, and

find themselves totally unable to implement the communication patterns demonstrated? How is it that we read a magazine article on “101 Ways to Express Love to Your Spouse,” select two or three ways that seem especially good to us, try them, and our spouse doesn’t even acknowledge our effort? We give up on the other 98 ways and go back to life as usual.

We must be willing to learn our spouse’s primary love language if we are to be effective communicators of love. The problem is that we have overlooked one fundamental truth:

People speak different love languages.

In the area of linguistics, there are major language groups: Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, English, Portuguese, Greek, German, French, and so on. Most of us grow up learning the language of our parents and siblings, which becomes our primary or native tongue. Later, we may learn additional languages but usually with much more effort. These become our secondary languages. We speak and understand best our native language. We feel most comfortable speaking that language. The more we use a secondary language, the more comfortable we become conversing in it. If we speak only our primary language and encounter someone else who speaks only his or her primary language, which is different from ours, our communication will be limited. We must rely on pointing, grunting, drawing pictures, or acting out our ideas. We can communicate, but it is awkward. Language differences are part and parcel of human culture. If we are to communicate effectively across cultural lines, we must learn the language of those with whom we wish to communicate.

In the area of love, it is similar. Your emotional love language and the language of your spouse may be as different as Chinese from English. No matter how hard you try to express love in English, if your spouse understands only Chinese, you will never understand how to love each other. Being sincere is not enough. We must be willing to learn our spouse’s primary love language if we are to be effective communicators of love. there are basically five emotional love languages-five ways that people speak and understand emotional love. In the field of linguistics a language may have numerous dialects or variations. Similarly, within the five basic emotional love languages, there are many dialects. That accounts for the magazine articles titled “10 Ways to Let Your Spouse Know You Love Her,” “20 Ways to Keep Your Man at Home,” or “365 Expressions of Marital Love.” There are not 10, 20, or 365 basic love languages. In my opinion, there are only five. However, there may be numerous dialects. The number of ways to express love within a love language is limited only by one’s imagination. The important thing is to speak the love language of your spouse.

We have long known that in early childhood development each child develops unique emotional patterns. Some children, for example, develop a pattern of low self-esteem whereas others have healthy self-esteem. Some develop emotional patterns of insecurity whereas others grow up feeling secure. Some children grow up feeling loved, wanted, and appreciated, yet others grow up feeling unloved, unwanted, and unappreciated.

The children who feel loved by their parents and peers will develop a primary emotional love language based on their unique psychological makeup and the way their parents and other significant persons expressed love to them. They will speak and understand one primary love language. They may later learn a secondary love language, but they will always feel most comfortable with their  primary language. Children who do not feel loved by their parents and peers will also develop a primary love language. However, it will be somewhat distorted in much the same way as some children may learn poor grammar and have an underdeveloped vocabulary. That poor programming does not mean they cannot become good communicators. But it does mean they will have to work at it more diligently than those who had a more positive model. Likewise, children who grow up with an underdeveloped sense of emotional love can also come to feel loved and to communicate love, but they will have to work at it more diligently than those who grew up in a healthy, loving atmosphere. Seldom do a husband and wife have the same primary emotional love language. We tend to speak our primary love language, and we become confused when our spouse does not understand what we are communicating. We are expressing our love, but the message does not come through because we are speaking what, to them, is a foreign language. Once we discover the five basic love languages and understand our own primary love language, as well as the primary love language of our spouse, we will then have the needed information to apply the ideas in the books and articles.

Once you identify and learn to speak your spouse’s primary love language, I believe that you will have discovered the key to a long-lasting, loving marriage. Love need not evaporate after the wedding, but in order to keep it alive most of us will have to put forth the effort to learn a secondary love language. We cannot rely on our native tongue if our spouse does not understand it. If we want him/her to feel the love we are trying to communicate, we must express it in his or her primary love language.

Love is the most important word in the English language-and the most confusing. Both secular and religious thinkers agree that love plays a central role in life. We are told that “love is a many splendored thing” and that “love makes the world go round.” Thousands of books, songs, magazines, and movies are peppered with the word. Numerous philosophical and theological systems have made a prominent place for love. And the founder of the Christian faith wanted love to be the distinguishing characteristic of His followers. Psychologists have concluded that the need to feel loved is a primary human emotional need. For love, we will climb mountains, cross seas, traverse desert sands, and endure untold hardships. Without love, mountains become unclimbable, seas uncrossable, deserts unbearable, and hardships our plight in life. The Christian apostle to the Gentiles, Paul, exalted love when he indicated that all human accomplishments that are not motivated by love are, in the end, empty. He concluded that in the last scene of the human drama, only three characters will remain: “faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love.”

If we can agree that the word love permeates human society, both historically and in the present, we must also agree that it is a most confusing word. We use it in a thousand ways. We say, “I love hot dogs,” and in the next breath, “I love my mother.” We speak of loving activities: swimming, skiing, hunting. We love objects: food, cars, and houses. We love animals: dogs, cats, even pet snails. We love nature: trees, grass, flowers, and weather. We love people: mother, father, son, daughter, parents, wives, husbands, and friends. We even fall in love with love.

If all that is not confusing enough, we also use the word love to explain behavior. “I did it because I love her.” That explanation is given for all kinds of actions. A man is involved in an adulterous relationship, and he calls it love. The preacher, on the other hand, calls it sin. The wife of an alcoholic picks up the pieces after her husband’s latest episode. She calls it love, but the psychologist calls it codependency. The parent indulges all the child’s wishes, calling it love. The family therapist would call it irresponsible parenting. What is loving behavior?

Child psychologists affirm that every child has certain basic emotional needs that must be met if he is to be emotionally stable. Among those emotional needs, none is more basic than the need for love and affection, the need to sense that he or she belongs and is wanted. With an adequate supply of affection, the child will likely develop into a responsible adult. Without that love, he or she will be emotionally and socially retarded.

I liked the metaphor the first time I heard it: “Inside every child is an ‘emotional tank’ waiting to be filled with love. When a child really feels loved, he will develop normally but when the love tank is empty, the child will misbehave. Much of the misbehavior of children is motivated by the cravings of an empty ‘love tank.’”

At the heart of mankind’s existence is the desire to be intimate and to be loved by another. Marriage is designed to meet that need for intimacy and love.

 

The emotional need for love, however, is not simply a childhood phenomenon. That need follows us into adulthood and into marriage. The “in love” experience temporarily meets that need, but it is inevitably a “quick fix” and, as we shall learn later, has a limited and predictable life span. After we come down from the high of the “in love” obsession, the emotional need for love resurfaces because it is fundamental to our nature. It is at the center of our emotional desires. We needed love before we “fell in love,” and we will need it as long as we live. The need to feel loved by one’s spouse is at the heart of marital desires. A man said to me recently, “What good is the house, the cars, the place at the beach, or any of the rest of it if your wife doesn’t love you?” Do you understand what he was really saying? “More than anything, I want to be loved by my wife.” Material things are no replacement for human, emotional love. A wife says, “He ignores me all day long and then wants to jump in bed with me. I hate it.” She is not a wife who hates sex; she is a wife desperately pleading for emotional love. Something in our nature cries out to be loved by another.

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(1) Wellness

'THE 10 FEATHERS OF HAPPINESS'. Motivational, inspirational health & wellness

Wellness1

Intuition-we all innately possess it, yet intuition stands low on the totem of qualities society and education encourage us to consciously cultivate. Most of us choose to rely upon those considered to have the “gift” of intuition. However, this is a fallacy because intuition is not a gift. Each of us has been innately endowed with the power of intuition, although its development varies within each individual. It would not be an exaggeration to say that on a daily basis we experience unexplained feelings we label as “hunches,” when in truth they point to the existence of underdeveloped intuition yearning to find expression in, through, and as us.

Intuition cannot be explained scientifically because the very phenomenon is unscientific; it is beyond logic. However, the collective conviction within our global society is that answers to the challenges of twenty-first-century living are to be found in the empirical evidence provided by science and technology. Never mind that worldwide societal structures-including governments, armed forces, and allopathic medicine, to name a few-covertly turn to intuitives for their psychic input, while everyday citizens turn to shamans, curanderas, and readers of all types (including animal intuitives) for panaceas and answers. Even great scientists reach a point where they must wait for a hunch, that intuitive flash that arises from within. Intuition, one of the most subtle energies within us, is direct perception.

What can be more practical and accurate?

The important thing to realize is that intuition goes beyond the rationalizing, analyzing, intellectual  mind that is often held hostage by the five senses and perceptual limitations. Logic is how the mind interprets reality; intuition is how the inner spirit experiences reality. Intuition takes you beyond mind into the clarity of crystal-clear knowingness.  The wisdom of the physical body is instinct, and the wisdom of soul-consciousness is intuition. “ The truth is that intuition is natural and available to all who are willing to invest the appropriate time and energy to hone it.” Intuition is one of the most down-to-earth and vital qualities to develop-one that assists us in all aspects of our lives. The good news is that it does not have to be imported or transplanted from some outer source.

It is already within us, just as the acorn tree lives within the seed, awaiting proper nourishment so that it may blossom. Intuition is your inner “seeing” eye that always directs you on the right course. It has no methodological procedure; it simply catches the pure truth. You may trustfully clean the lens of your inner intuitive eye by accepting Inna’s invitation to participate in your own healing, which means taking responsibility for growing up and becoming spiritually mature-a vital need on the collective level at this juncture in our human history.

HOW YOU CAN STRENGTHEN YOUR INTUITION

I have heard a lot about intuition and that everybody has it. How can I strengthen my intuition and understand the difference between my intuition and my general thoughts?

Intuition can be your guiding mechanism-your connection to the invisible, subtle, and Divine realms of existence. To be intuitive means to be able to tune in to your body, soul, or Higher Self for spiritual guidance, to decipher the messages you receive and make empowering choices. Intuitive insights can come to you when you are awake, meditating, dreaming, taking a shower, exercising, connecting to your body, or just relaxing. While you may be more likely to access your intuition when you are in a meditative state, it can arise at any point, including a time of crisis. “Intuition is an internal form of perception of things that are not directly in front of us in the world. It’s an inner sight, a form of hearing, body sense, and emotion. It’s actually common to all the other senses and an enhancement of them. What differentiates intuition from other senses is the unique form of expression it takes in each individual.”

The Difference between Regular Thought and Intuition

The difference between regular thoughts and intuition is the quality of information you receive. Thoughts come and go while intuition is usually a persistent feeling. Thoughts are changeable; intuition is more profound-an inner knowing. Thoughts are typically based on linear thinking; intuition is spontaneous and natural. Thoughts are fleeting, but intuition is often accompanied by bodily sensations and unexplained occurrences.

Your intuition will not necessarily give you the message you want to receive. This is one of the reasons you may tend to ignore it. Intuition develops when you are willing to pay attention to your feelings and follow your hunches. Like exercising a muscle, the more you use your intuition, the more confidence you instill in yourself and the stronger your instincts become. The greatest power of intuitive insights is their ability to change the course of your actions and hence your life. Your intuition awakens when you allow yourself to embrace your sensitivity, feel your emotions, and connect with nature. As you relax and allow yourself to get in touch with your body, you start to see the world around and within you from a different perspective. You begin to pay attention to messages from

your body as well as the intelligence of the universe and your soul. Intuition increases when you let go of your protective barriers and open to the hidden world of wonders, where anything is possible. This is a timeless realm of guides and angelic helpers where things can transform instantly. In this nonlinear reality of Divine possibilities, nothing is bound by the rules of time, space, and gravity.

How to Recognize Intuition

Whenever I have asked my workshop participants how they recognize an intuitive insight, most have said they experience a feeling of certainty-a knowing that is often sudden, emotional, and not necessarily based on logic or prior knowledge of the details involved. They may receive an unexpected understanding, a vision, the cause of a particular issue, or the answer for what they have to do. Some also talk of feeling tingling sensations or changes in temperature, smelling scents, or experiencing a particular taste in their mouth. Others hear sounds; receive guidance through signs; or use cards, channeling, astrology, numerology, dreams, and other methods. Everyone is different and receives information in his or her unique way.

Your intuition becomes your compass, a navigating device that enhances your flexibility, adjusting your course based on internal wisdom as well as the external circumstances of your life.

Most people have experienced intuitive guidance in their lives that led them to a place where they needed to be-a knowing that someone they cared about was in trouble and needed help, a sense that someone they were close to was about to pass away, or a certainty that they would get the job they wanted before they even applied. One of the greatest challenges people experience with intuition is their accurate interpretation of the information they receive.

 Intuitive Methods of Diagnosing Illness

There are many intuitive diagnostic methods. Some people can see images and cellular memories inside a person’s body, tune in to energy centers, or feel other people’s emotions and pain. There are also various muscle testing techniques that can assess physical, mental, energetic, and emotional issues.

Several art therapists and doctors can pinpoint illnesses people have by asking patients to draw how they see themselves and how they feel about their life. Folding a sheet of paper twice to make four quarters, these doctors and therapists have the patients use colored pencils to draw and color in their face, body, family, and anything else they feel is relevant on different parts of the page. This can give an experienced health practitioner information about their patients’ lives, what emotions they are dealing with, their possible aliments, and what tests may need to be done, as well as the possible causes of a patient’s “disease.” The different quarters can also relay information about the patient’s past, present, and future. This kind of intuitive drawing technique is particularly powerful with children, as it also gives them an opportunity to express themselves and understand what is going on in their lives.

Sound healing, aromatherapy, and different touch and movement treatments can pinpoint physical, emotional, and energetic problems. There are also people who use crystals, pendulums, runes, cards, or colors as tools to intuit physical, emotional, and energetic conditions. Both internal and external guidance helps to show you that you are on the right track in relation to your life purpose, as well as keeping you healthy and giving you courage to heal, evolve, and move forward. It’s important to find an intuitive system that works for you. It is also essential to remember that while intuition can help you in many areas of your life, you still need to use your common sense, have a balanced point of view, and make practical, realistic choices. Combining your intuition with wisdom and experience usually bears the greatest results.

Be careful not to become overexcited about schemes that promise magical solutions to longstanding problems. When people want an instant result, most of the time it’s because they feel lost, desperate, or disempowered Make sure that you research whatever system of healing you work with, ask a lot of questions, and have a profound understanding of what you are doing. It is also important to note that healing does not always mean curing. For example, you may release an emotional issue and change your internal experience, but the physical condition will remain due to other factors. On the other hand, you may have a physical healing without changing your internal reality, in which case the problem or ailment is likely to return. If the real cause of the issue has not been dealt with, the unhealthy energy can simply move to another area of your body that is weak.

Obviously, the intention is to heal on all levels and enjoy long-term well-being.

Where Intuitive Insights Come From: Internal vs. External

I believe that you have internal insights and external guidance. Internal insights occur when you become conscious of important messages or wisdom your body and soul are trying to impart about a physical problem you are dealing with, a relationship you are in, a past experience or decision that you have been hesitant about, and so forth. You can access internal guidance through meditation or by consciously connecting to your body, or it can appear in your dreams. Pay particular attention to repetitive dreams, as the subconscious mind, soul, and intuition are trying to get your attention. External guidance can come from the universe in the form of synchronicities, unexplained occurrences, repetitive signs, card readings, and unexpected meetings, appearances of angelic beings, visions, channeling, miracles, and symbols. Both internal and external ways give people an intuitive insight into themselves and what they need to focus on to enjoy life wellness.

Internal Guidance: Awakening Your Intuition while Meditating

When you meditate, you have the capacity to slow down your mind and connect to your body, emotions, and soul. A relaxed state is often ideal for receiving important insights. People  must be encouraged to soften their bodies, place their hands on the part of their body that has pain or discomfort, and begin their exploration by asking empowering questions, such as:

• If there were a thought pattern or a belief stored in this part of my body, what would it be?

• If there were a feeling stored here, what would it be and what situations would it relate to?

• If my body had a message for me about the actions I need to take next in order to feel better, what would it be?

You can ask any question you like. Then simply relax and allow an answer to float into your mind.

The more open you are, while maintaining a clear intention of what you are asking for, the more likely you will receive an answer. When an answer is unexpected, it usually means it has come from your intuition and Higher Self rather than your conscious mind.

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(2) Wellness

What is Wellness Coaching?

wellness2

Internal Guidance: The Intuition of Dreams

Often, dreams can show you what you are trying to ignore, bury, and suppress. When you recognize and start to deal with hidden, shadow aspects and difficulties you are facing, your dreams usually change. Many dream analysts believe that dreams can help release unacknowledged emotions into your consciousness so that you can face a challenging issue without creating a physical ailment.

I encourage people to keep a journal of impact dreams and intuitive insights, give themselves time to understand the dreams’ meanings, acknowledge the areas they need to transform, and then take steps toward making empowering choices. In order to fully grasp what your intuition is trying to tell you, make sure you explore the shadow and the light meanings of your dreams.

 Kerry’s Story: A Powerful Series of Dreams

I have a friend, Kerry, who kept dreaming that her teeth were falling out. While this dream is common, it is important to interpret it based on the person’s particular experience. In Kerry’s case, the dream mirrored her anxiety about a long-distance relationship she was having, where she was doing all the sacrificing. Each tooth she lost in her dream represented the personal cost of her compromise. In order to be with her boyfriend, she had to put her own dreams, career, and responsibilities on hold and follow him around the world. This put an incredible financial and emotional strain on her life. She also felt like she could not be completely honest with him, thus her dream was demonstrating her loss of power, stuck ness, and lack of choice.

On a physical level, teeth help you chew food and communicate. The emotional aspect of losing teeth can demonstrate feeling powerless, as well as a fear of aging and not being able to process your current experiences. Symbolically, this kind of dream shows a loss of your voice and your lack of belief in your capacity to co create your life experiences. It’s as if you are trapped in a situation and unable to move forward. Interestingly, Kerry also dreamt of being stuck in a prison that she kept trying to escape from.

Although Kerry’s intuition was clearly speaking through her dreams, demonstrating that her mind, body, and spirit felt trapped in her situation and that she was losing her strength and had to be honest with herself and her partner, she interpreted her dream to be communicating that things were getting better and that she was making positive changes. Yet from an outside perspective, she seemed to be struggling in several areas of her life, and it appeared like her soul was asking her to pay attention to what was not working in her life, be truthful, ask for support, make practical decisions, and take responsibility for her financial situation.

Through a substantial amount of self-examination and honesty, Kerry finally understood the message, shared her true feelings with her partner, made new plans for the future, felt more confident in her, and began taking care of her financial responsibilities. Thus she really did make positive changes.

 Rhonda’s Story: Color Healing

Rhonda used color healing with the help of color cards and Reiki to assist her mother to heal her thyroid cancer. To begin the healing, Rhonda’s mother intuitively chose three colors that could help with her thyroid and immune system: blue, which is helpful for any throat and thyroid conditions, as well as with purifying the body, soothing nervous irritation, and clearing blocked pathways; orange, which assists in boosting your immune system and helping to dissolve painful emotions; and green, which aids in overcoming fear, releasing frustration, and revitalizing your nervous and circulatory systems.

Rhonda then placed the cards on her mother’s body and began sending healing energy to her. When she removed the cards, they had changed color and had a warm, sticky liquid on them. Her mother said she also felt like painful energy was leaving her body.

Not long after, her mother had an operation where her thyroid gland was removed. When she got her results back, they showed no cancer.

Deepak Chopra writes, “It may sound strange to think of cancer as distorted energy, but that’s just what it is. To remove that discomfort, you have to start thinking of the whole body in terms of energy. Dealing with your own energy is the most effortless way to heal yourself, because you are going directly to the source.” I have heard of countless examples of how combining intuition with color healing and energy work can help you heal. While at times healing yourself can require deep exploration of many different aspects of your mental and emotional patterns as well as your diet and lifestyle, at other times it can occur quickly and easily. It is important that you do not underestimate the power of a simple healing process done with the right intention and an open heart.

External Guidance: The Intuition of Repetitive Signs

At times, your soul will connect to Universal Intelligence and communicate to you through recurring experiences, unexplained occurrences, and sometimes instant aid. Usually this is to assist you with shifting your perspective, healing an aspect of your life, helping someone in need, providing confidence that you are on the right track, or completely changing the course of your life. The Universal Intelligence will always try to guide you on an easier path, but if you resist, you will be impelled to grow through difficulties instead of love and joy.

Repetitive signs are the way Universal Intelligence signals to you that you are supported and not alone. It also hints that there could be a bigger picture that you are not aware of when you are caught up in fear, details, and limitations.

External Guidance: Life’s “Coincidences”

Sometimes we believe that we need to move in a particular direction, which seems to be the right way to proceed, and then our goals and ideas change, and the universe assists us by adjusting our path. So the messages we receive could seem contradictory; however, there are no rules in the universe that say your path should be linear instead of creative. Life is not a business meeting, which is structured, runs on time, and has clear agendas to follow.

The more you are in tune with your body and are able to develop your intuition (or as I like to call it, “internal tuition”), the more in touch with nature and the natural flow of life you will become.

It is important to note that even when you are in tune, there will be times in your life that are chaotic - when you will have doubts and feel confused. This is usually the time for internal and external change. Change often occurs on the border between chaos and order, confusion and clarity, shadow and light, fantasy and reality, success and failure, pain and pleasure and life often challenges your flexibility, depth, and ability to adapt to these new possibilities.

  Ask for Higher Help

One of the most important things we can learn is to consistently ask for higher guidance and Divine help. We do not need to wait for a crisis to seek assistance. In fact, having a daily connection and communication with the Divine realm makes your journey a lot easier, more sound, and more enjoyable.

To be truly intuitive means being able to understand and speak the language of the subtle and unseen realms. While some people are born with highly developed intuitive senses and a Divine connection, others need to take time to hone their intuitive skills.

The truth is that intuition is natural and available to all who are willing to invest the appropriate time and energy to develop it. The word intuition is derived from the Latin word intueri, the meaning of which is “to look within” or “to contemplate.” I encourage you to do both. There is much hidden treasure if you dare to look.

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Valentine’s Day

VALENTINE'S DAY PROPOSAL ROBBERY

Valentine

What Is Valentine’s Day?

On February 14, we think about people we love. We also think about friends. We may send these special people messages called valentines. It is fun to make or choose these decorated greetings. It feels good to get them! We sometimes give and get gifts. February 14 is Valentine’s Day. Valentine’s Day is not a national holiday. Schools, government offices, and businesses are open on February 14. Still, Valentine’s Day has been observed as a special day for a long time.

 How Did Valentine’s Day Begin?

Before Christianity, people in Rome sang, danced, and feasted on February 15. Their calendar put February in springtime. They welcomed the returning birds. They thought about starting families themselves. The names of young women were put in a bowl. When a man picked out a name, he was supposed to have found his love! Later, Christian church leaders tied these customs to stories about Valentine. He was a priest in the city of Rome. He lived in the third century. He was named a saint after his death.

 Who Was Saint Valentine?

One story says that Valentine helped young people in love. Soldiers were not allowed to marry. As a priest, Valentine broke this law. He secretly married couples who came to him. Another story says that Valentine refused to give up Christianity. He was put in prison. A guard there had a blind daughter. Gentle Valentine became her friend. He wrote her a letter, signed “from your Valentine.” When the girl held this letter, she was suddenly able to see! Rome’s ruler had Valentine killed on February 14. It became his special day.

 What Did People Believe About Valentine’s Day?

Love remained important on Valentine’s Day. In France and Italy, feasts were held. Young men and women paired off. However, these couples did not always find true love together. After many years, the governments stopped these feasts. There were foolish ideas about the day, too. In England, women thought they would marry the man they dreamed about on Valentine’s Day. In Italy, women believed they would marry the first man they saw on Valentine’s Day. Love is still important today, though. Many couples get engaged or married on February 14.

 How Has Valentine’s Day Changed?

People no longer believe that Valentine’s Day brings true love. Many people, though, not just Christians, use this day to send messages of love. Valentine’s Day was once just about romantic love. Today, valentines are sent to family and friends, too. Valentines are usually gentle and sweet, but some have jokes. Before most people could read, valentines were spoken or sung. Today, they are usually written. All valentines were once handmade. Today, many cards are manufactured. Valentine shapes and decorations continue to suggest love.

 What Are Some Symbols of Valentine’s Day?

The heart is the main symbol of Valentine’s Day. It is said to be the center of feelings. Many valentines are heart-shaped. Because real hearts are red or pink, these colors are important on Valentine’s Day. Flowers that first appear in spring are popular on valentines. Birds and butterflies that return each spring also decorate valentines. Some valentines show a young boy with wings. He is holding a bow and arrow. This is Cupid, an ancient god of Rome. People believed that someone hit by Cupid’s arrow would fall in love.

 What Is the Story of Valentine Cards?

 In the past, people gave handmade valentines in person. Often, these paper valentines were cut or folded in fancy ways. In the nineteenth century, it became cheaper to mail letters. People wanted to send more cards. Companies began to manufacture valentines. Most of these companies were in England and the United States. Valentine cards had many decorations. Lace, ribbons, and feathers were added. Some cards had pockets that hid treats. Some valentines even had parts that moved. Famous artists sometimes created the pictures for valentines.

 How Is It Observed in the United States?

 Romantic valentines are popular. Family and friends give each other valentines, too. In schools, children also observe Valentine’s Day. There are parties, games, and cards. One custom is the valentine box. Each student gets a card from everyone else in class. These valentines sometimes show cartoon or movie characters. Red hearts or Cupids decorate rooms. People enjoy heart-shaped cakes, cookies, and candy. Giving chocolates in a heart-shaped box is one custom. Sometimes people give flowers or jewelry. Dances are another custom on Valentine’s Day.

 How Is It Observed Around the World?

Valentine’s Day is a special time in other countries, too. In England, mailboxes are stuffed with cards on this day. Children as well as adults get valentines and sweet treats. Some valentine customs differ. For example, red roses are most popular in the United States, Germany, and Mexico. In Denmark, though, white flowers called snowdrops are the valentine favorite. The United States and England are the countries with the most Valentine’s Day customs

Glossary

Christianity-the faith that believes Jesus Christ is the son of God

Cupid-ancient Roman god of romantic love; also, the son of Venus, goddess of love

Custom-something regularly done by a group of people

Lace-cloth with many patterns made by narrow threads romantic

Love-love that can lead to marriage or to two people choosing to spend their lives together

Symbol-something that represents something else

Rome-a city that long ago ruled many lands

Valentines-written and decorated messages of love

 Did You Know?

• There may have been two priests named Valentine. This is why there are different stories about this saint.

• The oldest paper valentine ever found was written about 1415. It is kept in the British Museum in London.

• Some sailors used knives to carve their valentines on whale bones.

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